Sample data illustrating the motion kinematics and the measured yaw torque on a dynamically scaled robot of a fly. The wing kinematics in this example generate a desired torque about the yaw axis of the body frame. [right] Color-coded description of the angles describing the motion of the wings.
Using a dynamically scaled model insect we measure the forces produced by a ﬂapping insect wing. By translating and rotating the wings at a range of angular velocities, the resulting aerodynamic forces are measured using sensors attached to the base of the wing. This allows the identification of the various mechanisms by which insect wings generate aerodynamic forces. ---- courtesy The Dickinson Lab